Journal of Zhao Liewen under the plague of the first year of Tongzhi

尧 育

War often accompanied by plague. The Taiping Heavenly War stretches for nearly ten years, which may lead to a large-scale plague in the south of the south. Yu Xinzhong believes that “the large-scale plague in Jiangnan during the” Taiping Heavenly State War “Decorated (1860), the first year of Tongzhi (1862) reached the climax, the Tongzhi three years with the end of the war. It is an explosive in Jiangnan, China The wavefrise is second only to the plague of the highest epidemic and epidemic rate, causing millions of people. The type of plague includes cholera, malaria, dysentery, ceiling, class cholera, and may have typhoid fever and a hundred-day cough. “

(Yu Xinzhong “The South Anti-War and the Relationship between War and Plague”)

There were 32 counties before and after the epidemic, and there were 24 plagues in 24 counties in the first year of Tongzhi in the epidemic.

The war has caused serious impact on the Qing army and the Taiping army. More civilians are also killed in the plague, Merfish’s death: violence, sequel and death of the Taiping Heavenly War “Made in the first chapter, discuss how people handle a variety of corpses during this period. Diary in Tongzhi years retains the author’s living under the plague, can be seen as an event book for this plague. Many researchers have used diary to study the nature of the plague, the types, and infection of the disease, these analytical studies have enhanced people’s understanding of this terrible disaster. However, if the overall diary is seen in the plague period, the symptoms involving the disease, the patient’s prescription is not so rich, but still mainly document people’s daily life and the practice. This just reminds us to pay attention to how people in this period can explore how people treated the plague during the plague. How to live under the plague. The diary reproduces the coexistence of people with the disease, retaining people to deal with the acts and ways of the plague, providing a historical proof of individual emotions under the plague. In the diary of Zeng Guofan, Mo Youzhi, Zhao Lie Wen, etc., there is no shortage about this plague. Among them, “Zhao Lie Wen Diary”

(Zhonghua Book Company, 2020 Edition)

The outstanding characteristics are the experience of relatives and underlying people under the influence of the plague, and the pen is more emotional.

Zhao Lie Wen Diary recorded many people’s dyeing news, some of which have undoubted death incidents caused by plague, affecting the first year of Zhao Lie Wenzhi. This year, the autumn and winter season, Zhao Liewen is plagued by the dye of loved ones and “family”. These things chaos his daily rhythm and change his trip and life. For Zhao Lie Wen, the first year of Tongzhi is called “plague moment” in his life.

Fan Wei organizes “Zhao Lie Wen Diary”, Zhonghua Book Company, 2020

First, the weather and sign of the first month

Xianfeng 11-year New Year’s Eve, the people of Wuchang City, Hubei, like previous years, with local customs, use wooden barrels to flush fat burning, and the fire will shine through the streets. This unique “New Year’s Eve”, accompanied by Zhao Lie Wen (1832-1893) diary, crossing Xianfeng Year, came to the first year of Tongzhi.


In the first year of Tongzhi (1862) New Year’s Day, early and sunny, the southeast wind, the weather is cold, soon the fog is soaring. Zhao Lie Wen as an example of burning incense, worshiping Confucius, worshiping bodhisattva, and worshiping the ancestors. Then he begins with the necessary examples of the early year, pre- the annual budget. In the past few days, the snow in Wuchang and other places gave him special confidence. Two days before the two days, Zhao Liewen and the friend were on the Yellow Crane Tower to enjoy the snow, seeing, “Tian Yun, Jiangli, two cliffs, the jail, the junction”. After two days, the big snow is thick and the three feet, “is not seen in the past 20 years.” Since then, 10 consecutive days of cold weather, Zhao Lie Wenzheng has never experienced. Unfortunately, Ruixue does not necessarily sign a good year. Zhao Lie Wen hosted “‘Yanshan gradually’ to ‘Water Mountain”, this 征 征 兆 “室 家 or in illish, no big fight”. This is not bad, but Zhao Lie Wen did not pay attention to the problem of predicament, he believes that “it seems to refer to the air in the house, and it is also open, there is no greatness.” However, this disease problem that is considered “no big might” is finally around this year. Unfortunately, Zhao Lie Wen, which is good at forecasing future, can predict that the Qing dynasty will be in the fifty years, but it cannot be expected to become so dangerous in this year.

The future of the New Year cannot be expected, and Zhao Lie Wen’s residence has been strange. Zhao Lie Wen lived in the new house of friends Liu Wei (the words), and the other three still lived in two small people in Liu Wei. The two little sorrows were harassed by monsters every night, constantly contraction with their families. Before and after the New Year, they said that “there is black, jumped, and it is not allowed to move.” People arrived as soon as they were in the first month of the first month, Zhao Liewen and others captured the footprints left by the monster in the snow, and found that the square’s footprints “is absolutely a class, and the beast, no such as the beast ” Based on the records on the ancient books, he thinks this is the mountain, because the mountain is “fear the ringtone, because of teaching his home”. “

The suspended bell has succeeded in the monster, and it no longer harasss the Gao Shu, but the transfer target. In the first month of the first month, the monsters who were afraid of the ringtone began to harass Zhao Lie Wen. Of course, the night, Zhao Liewen “I feel that there is a left shoulder, the heavy. 甫, 余 即, 叱 叱, rolling, until the window is silent.” In the first five nights, the monsters did not disturb. After the first six days later, the room was in the room, and the servant of Zhao Liewen saw the monster like a black monkey. At this time, Zhao Lie Wen and his family have not fell asleep, so I ignite the bamboo scared mock, they see the monster wolf, from a few people to cross the escape, finally sell.


Changzhou, who is far away, Zhao Liewen’s wife write a letter tells him that there is no money in the family in the family. His friend Dong Liang (word Zhongming) The three women in the family died in the festival. It is unbearable to the hometown, and the Zhao Lie Wen is helpless, and there is also a job in the curtain. On the 14th of the first month, Zhao Lie Wen took the boat, and went to Anqing Zeng Guofan. During the Jiujiang. “.

The New Year is in this weird and cold way. For Zhao Lie Wen, it is cruel than the other years since the military. Ok, he habits can still endure. However, the next year is even worse. In May, the floods of Hubei and other places have been continuously, and the price of rice is rising. Some provinces, such as Tongchengtian, “can have a plow”, between the people, and people. On July, the locusts flew over Anqing. Zhao Lie Wen will complete a test of locusts. On the sixth day of July, Zhao Lie Wen wrote in the diary: “The world is full of snow, and the locust is inverted. It is a drought fish and shrimp ovarization into a locust. Go to winter snow 7 feet, this summer water is four provinces, Two Chu Yuxu). The sky is over, and the ambassador is a difficult letter. This flying chair, at the same time in Anqing, until the end of July, Zeng Guofan also wrote in the diary, “Yin Rain 10 days, this day is clear, the party is happy, and the dust is covered,” “.

The maintenance of the ancients commonly used in the ancients and the year of the year is not caused, and the scene of Jiangnan from the first year of Tongzhi, this year is indeed no peace. Over time, people gradually discovered that the plague starting in Xianfeng Decade (1860) was particularly violent in this year, and many people died in this plague. Zhao Lie Wen had to face many people’s abnormal deaths, some of which are important to him, and others are not so important, but they are also left traces in his life. He recorded these in the diary.

Second, the odd people Zhou Teng’s matte

At the years, Li Zhaoluo (1769-1941) was regarded as “Qi Yang” Zhou Tenghu (1816-1862), which was taken away by the plague in autumn. Zhou Tenghu, famous, word, Jiangsu Yanghu people, Daoguang years have been appreciated by Lin Xu. Xianfeng’s first year, with Qianjiang (1800-1853) and other people a category system. Xianfeng’s six years (1855), Zong Qichen (1792-1867) will be recommended to Zuo Zongtang and others in the court. Zhou Tenghu was self-founded by a name, and he had a Denmin, and there was a law to pick up the law.

(Xiao Lianqi ” Foreword”)

It is a pity that it is not a wish in his life.


Zhou Tenghu is a very high frequency of frequent frequencies in Zhao Lie Wen diary. Zhao Lie Wen detained Zhou Tenghu related things, not only because Zhou Tenghu is his sister, but also has an extremely important impact on Zhou’s growth process and ideas. Even

In the 1940th month of Tongzhi First Year, Zhao Liewen and Zhou Tengpo were in the event of Zeng Guofan, and often industrial. Since then, Zhou Tenghu is accepted by Zeng Guofan, and went to Shanghai to buy foreign ships, foreign guns, foreign guns. Zhao Lie Wen once went to the handsome house to inquire about the situation of Zhou Tenghu, and the news was “老 久 无函”. For the teacher of this brother, Zhao Lie Wen is very worried about Zhao Lie Wen, maybe the heart is hidden.

On the fourth day of August, Zhao Liewen was informed of the murderer of Zhou Tenghu, “Stunning … The sky is cool to this, what is the husband,”. ” After several days, Zhao Liewen was immersed in grief. On the sixth day of August, Zhao Lie Wen was crying Zhou Tenghu in the apartment. On the same day, I wrote “crying 甫 文”, in the article, the warmth of Zhou Tenghu’s early education is: “Jun has a book, must show, Jun has to say, must be sang. After the sadness of life, do you start after? Until the end of the 10th, Zhao Lie Wenfang was aware of the details of Zhou Tenghu to the world from Hua Fangjiaxin. Zhao Lie Wen couldn’t help but feel emotion, “I will kill two people, I can be sad!” In fact, Zhou Tenghu et al. Is not because of riding a homogeneous boat, but died in the popular dysentery. The child did not die.

The war and the plague have made Jiangnan information communication very stunned, rumors and inexperitative news faster people concerned about plague. Regarding the death of Zhou Tenghu, in addition to Zeng Guofan gets the exact news, “Zhou Hao is passed on Shanghai,” there are many per capita missed the news. Such as Mo Youzhi’s fourth day, “Wen Zhang Yuanyuan, Zhou Wei died in Changzhou”. Information communication is not in the abundance, the plague is increasing, and the birth of all kinds of rumors.

Zhou Tenghu is died of malaria, as for the details, it is not known. Zhou Teng Tiger has believed that Zhao Lie Wen, on July 11, talked about “The sickness of June 11th, July eight nine, repeated fainting”, it seems that he did not premonstate the end of life at all. Malaria is an important reason why Zhou Tenghu has resigned, but depression psychology and bad emotions may also accelerate the deterioration of the condition. Zeng Guofan learned from Li Hongzhang to the third day of the third day of the third day of the third day, the evaluation Zhou Tenghu is “the old man is recommended, the depression is stumdy, and the depression is dead.” In the previous year, Zeng Guofan was willing to take Zhou Tenghu, Hua Yufang and others, and believe that Zhou Tenghu “is far from knowing far, knowing is a deep interest”, and is imperative. However, because some people are playing, the Dacupond believes that Zhou Tenghu “longevity” is not the case, “

. The Zhou Tenghu, who was the next year, was hit, adding the disease, and his body and heart, and hey.

Zhou Tenghu married Zhao Lie Wen’s four sister Zhao Wing is a wife. Due to his father Zhao Renji (1789-1841) Dreaming in Zhao Lie Wen, he died at the age of 8. Zhou Tenghu partially undertakes the responsibility of the education Zhao Liewen. The two people are emotional. The “Zhao Lie Wen Diary” was first disclosed by Zhao Lie Wen’s twenty-two to 25 years old, which directly involved in Zhou Tenghu’s number of times. According to the index of the “Zhao Lie Wen Diary”, the index statistics were found: Xianfeng two years 34 times, Xianfeng three years, Xianfeng four years 10 times, Xianfeng is as high as 23 times in the first half of the year. These words involving Zhou Tenghu show that Zhao Liewen often goes to Zhou Tenghu family to eat, talk to Zhou Tenghu’s paper, borrowing various books of Zhou Tenghu. Sometimes there are a few pens, which records eat tofu, eats steamed buns in the tea, and lick the “Tongmie’s purpose” such as Zhou Tenghu newly purchased the book, trivia, and the warmth of the warmth. From the content of the diary, as long as Zhou Tenghu is at home, Zhao Lie Wen is almost every time, and the relationship between the two is more than the brother. No wonder Zhao Lie Wen said in “Mr. Wu, Mr. Wen”: “Xiwu first public, Yu Yizhang, unfortunately, there is no place, no more concerned about it, no more concerned. He is arrested, Jun Zhizhi love, more than Yu Queeni. To help the fascination, let the faster pendant, talk about repeated, to open a heart. “The so-called love is too brother, teaching the fascinating brother, not Zhao Lie Wen’s virtual words, but two relationships Documentary writing.

Zhao Liewen “Falling Flower Spring Nest Diary” book, selected from “Zhao Lie Wen Diary”

Zhou Teng Tiger’s death, for the Tunguang, only a small number of people, less office staff, but for Zhao Lie Wen, it is a good friend, is a friend of a friend. Death is not just a grief, it still leaves Zhao Lie Wen’s specific matters, the most important thing is to be buried by Zhou Tenghu, and take care of the care of its home. On August 12, Zhou Tenghu went to Zeng Guofan, and went to Jiangxi to meet the family of Zhou Tenghu. After processing Zhou Tenghu, it has become the main business of Zhao Lie Wenzhi in the second half of the year. These cumbersome affairs dealt with Zhao Liewen mainly divided into the following five aspects:


First, go to Zhou family to report, comfort the family. On August 23, Zhao Liewen arrived in Nanchang, and then went to “Askay to ask four sisters, all in a hurry. That is, a throw, is miserable. Punish advisory is far away, watching big things, can’t be lost It is not filial. Tell a pois, start less interest. ” Pass the news, comfort the emotions of the family, although the lip tongue, only Zhao Lie Wen deals the first step in the future of Zhou Tenghu.


(Xiao Lianqi ” Foreword”)

Second, we will handle the funeral of Zhou Tenghu. After arriving in Nanchang, Zhao Liewen made a comprehensive arrangement for Zhou Tenghu: First, the people were fully planned. Zhao Lie Wen arrived in Nanchang on August 23, and Wang Wei, who came to the Tongxiang, came to visit Zhou Tenghu Zhou Shi Cheng (the word Lu, Meng Hao, etc.), that is, left to help handle funeral. Zhao Lie Wen invited Jinxun (word Hua Pavilion) to be responsible for making filial piety, 讣 post. With the assistance of Jin Xun and another with the township Xu Qingfeng (word quiet mountain), it was formulated “25th, the family is successful, 27 days”. Second, the pro-person, write a pull, and highly summarize Zhou Teng Hui Ping. Running the cloud: “Thousands have been 诟, the hundred has been defective, only should regret a long time, 孰 先 共 斯; 不 小, can be greatly affected. Most of the pain is universal in the world “Ming Yufang”. This will not meet Zhou Teng Huhuai, and there is no regret. On September 24, September 24, Gong Orange told Zhao Lie Wen, Zhou Tenghu Linked poetry: “Although there is no cause, there is a work in the autumn.” With the end of the poems and tie, Zhao Liewen is well deserved as Zhou Tenghu’s confidant. The third is a reward guest. From 23 to 27, for five consecutive days, Zhao Lie Wen will help Week family return to the guests, although there is only 30 people, but the hard work is still not waiting.

Zhou Tenghu literature, the picture is self-“”

Zhou Tenghu Linyi poem

This entertainment includes both daily reception and a letter to a letter. For example, on August 17th, Zhao Lie Wen wrote to Guo Wei in the boat, saying “Smell the Hand’s knowledge of the 殁,” When Zhao Lie Wen received Zhou Tenghu’s family, he was in the east to Zhou Tenghu to settle down, Hua Fufang, Mo You Zhi, Jin Anqing, etc. Zeng Guofan, the scene, all, this is Zhao Lie ‘s return. This kind of repayment is a huge effort. In August, Tongcheng sent a literati Xiao Mu (1835-1904) to help Liu surname the owner of the house, only the guests were asleep in the middle of the night. Try to see Xiao Mu, August 27th Diary Cloud, “should be out of the session. Night all the people handle the text, stick to the midnight.” Zhao Lie Wen Diary is not as good as Xiao Mu, but similar affairs is probably considerable.

Xiao Mu Japanese recorded the first year of cooperation, and the picture from the “Shanghai Library Tibetan Draft Diary”

Third, for the future life of the family, the future life, care for the future generations. On August 26, 30 days, Zhao Lie Wen two times worshiped Jiangxi governor Shen Yizhen (1820-1879), because Shen Hao is sick, never visible. Zhao Lie Wen had to write a letter. The content of the letter is purely considering the situation of Zhou Tenghu, cloud: “Take the short-lived short life, all the uncomfortable … you have a good fortune, the Gao Yi Yun, all in the gas class, the deep song. Strong this Welcome to the owners, then brought their son to Shanghai, help the burial. … The guidelines are not tired. If you can’t take it, you will be very popular. His family, there is still a “three-way”, the market price is a hundred gold, and there is no unprediction outside. “This helpful letter quickly received the response, on the first day of August, Shen Yizhen called the next day After a visit, on this day, Zhao Liewen, the third time I got, was got to see Shen Yu, and I have to talk about it. On the second day of September, Shen Hao worshiped Zhao Lie Wen and hanged Zhou Tihu’s mourning, helping Baily. Zhao Lie Wen sighed Shen Yizhen in the day diary “first, it has already got a gold twenty-four two. Yesterday, the situation is given, and she can’t get out, because of this, it is a sense of feelings.” Shen Yizhen helped himself, so that Zhao Lie Wen was moving, dozens of days later, Zhao Lie Wen didn’t forget to thank: “Recalling non-conceived, today is still in the emperor, Wang Xishan is cool, no It can be seen. “Maybe it is therefore, in the face of the conflict between Zeng Guofan and Shen Yu, Zhao Lie Wen always has a sense of feelings.

Missing and Zhou Teng Hujia poor, Zhao Lie Wen has repeatedly told Zhou Tenghu’s family later. Like the first month of the two years, Zhao Lie Wen will call Zeng Guofi, say Zhou Tenghu, Zeng Guofan (1824-1890), immediately gave a rich 赙 赙 赙. In this regard, Zhao Lie Wen also citious in the diary: “Shuai is do not know how to be 甫, Wen Wu said that his family poor, and it is very thick, you can feel very beautiful.”

Its four, fully take care of Zhou Teng Hujia and family. In August in the first year of Tongzhi, after Nanchang, Zhao Lie Wen received Zhou Tenghu family to receive Anqing. Since then, Zhao Lie Wen took the responsibility of Zhou Shi Shicheng (? -1878), and Zhao Lie Wen, Zhao Lie Wen, is also a father. In the Sixty-seven years of Tongzhi, Zhou Shicheng bids floating friends in the Jinling Book Office, which is increasingly flowing, and stays away from the 16th. However in the eleventh year (1872) Summer, Zhao Lie Wen was in Zhaozhou Zhaozhou Zhizhou, still summoning Zhou Shicheng. Unfortunately, Zhou Shicheng indulgent is difficult to change, but don’t say something. After Zhou Shiqing passed the death, Zhao Liewen did not swallow, and sighed: “Hey, you can’t teach the anti-leisure, and you can’t help but contain it. It is still unfortunate that Zhao Lie Wen, has been very trying to, this is not because he has lived in the Zhou Teng’s family in the first year of Tongzhi.

In addition, after Zhou Tenghu died, the poems of the poems left by Zhao Lie Wen. As in five years, six years, he also personally reviewed the school to order Zhou Tenghu “Mega Museum Diary”.

Fifth, hosted Zhou Teng Hu Ling’s burial. After the death of Shanghai, Zhou Tenghu was initially “funeraly industry”. After the family of peace of mind, Zhao Lie Wen was in the busy business, it was still on September 17, and Zhou Tenghu Zhou Shun Shun Jiangdong, 21 days arrived in Shanghai, the afternoon, “to the old fellow, Puzzle and a long time. ” Since then, Zhao Lie Wen works in Shanghai. On October 23, that is, the Word Teng Hu Lingzhao returns from Shanghai. On November 27, in the style of the earth. On the sixth day of December, the sacrifice Zhou Tenghu and his father-in-law Dunli (1810-1860). On the seventh day of December, the burial Zhou Tenghu and Dunli. After many years later, Zhao Lie Wen Tuo will pay homage to the grounds of Zhou Teng Tiji.

Zhao Lie Wen’s “Mr. Zhou Tomb Tomb”

Zhou Tenghu portrait

Zhao Lie Wen Wen Zhou Tenghu Tomb Tomb Tomb Tomb Tomb Solidly “Friends Zhao Lie Wen”

During the time of the recipe, Zhao Lie Wen is not alleviated. Because of his other family, he did not resist the invasion of the plague, and he died in the third place, and these things were still plagued by Zhao Liewen.

Third, Zhao Liewen “family” death

For those who are unfortunate in the plague, the disease is continuously connected, and one death will also die again. Zhao Lie Wen in the first year of Tongzhi, unfortunately hurting this bad luck. This plague took away Zhou Tenghu and also implicated to Zhaojia people.

In August, Nanchang, Jiangxi also appeared in Nanchang in the first year of Tongzhi. When Zhao Lie Wen carried the servant to Nanchang to meet Zhou Teng Hujia family, he did not expect this bank to lose an old servant. When starting, the servant is healthy, but after ten days in Nanchang, the servant is inadvertently dyed. On the fourth day of the morning, Zhao Liewen left Nanchang, and when prepared to board the boat, the servant Li Yibo felt the body discomfort. After ten days of boat trek, on August 21, near the boat on the high wind, on the wind. Zhao Liewen’s servant “to this, the day and night dozens of rows, it is very dangerous, and the boat can’t be inch, for the coke. Night 卧, the stinking, odorless, and a bitter.” Zhao Lie Wen, who is a boat with servants, have to endure this bad situation.

This plague gave the servant Li Yi’s opportunity, because of this major illness, he was written in Diary by Zhao Lie Wen and left a complete name in the diary. However, the result of this major illness is the end of his life.

At noon on August 23, Zhao Liewen arrived in Ma Dang. ” Among the day, Li Yi died, and was hugged into the grass. Zhao Lie Wen’s old servant ended his life. In the day diary, Zhao Liewen labeled Li Yi’s hometown, leaving a valuable file about servants. Diary Cloud: “Li Yi, also known as Li Si, Shanxi Pingyangfu Hongdong County Chengnan 18 Miles, live in the middle of the village in the west of the village. One child Come, Yanzhou physiology. “This concise profile explained Li Yi’s origin and pro-family, a few pens, wrote a life of the old servant in Shanxi. Based on this short record, we have no knowledge of Li Yi to wander from Shanxi to Changzhou, and become a servant of Zhao Lie Wen. However, Li Yi’s life is very labor, I am afraid it is still undoubted. The chaos are floating, died in a lonely boat, Li Yi is likely to be in the end of the bride, and the post-reported “servant file” in the diary in the diary.

The next day, Zhao Lie Wen wrote a letter to Li Yi’s foreign embarrassment, inform Li Yi’s illness. And sent a servant to escort Li Yi’s spiritual return to Anqing.

On August 26, Zhao Liewen left home returned to Anqing, and the news received was still a bad news. “The young girl was born on the first day of the previous month, and the silver official is dead, and it is shocked.” His young girl died in Changzhou, his boy, the silver official, also crowded in Changzhou. It is likely to die in an acute cholera.

The plague has made many changes in the servants in Zhao Lie Wen’s home, and the old servant leaves, the new servant is very fast. On the 9th of September, Li Yi did so long after Li Yi passed that Zhao Lie Wen has recently reserved a servant Wu Sheng in Anhui Nest County. At the end of this year, Zhao Liewen has returned from Shanghai after Handling of Hua Tenghu and others in Shanghai. At this time, Zhao Liewen “carries the sick and Li Sheng one. … The old servanta set, receives the new servant Chenfu (Suzhou), Wang Gui (Shui people). Li Sheng, Li Fazi, this summer Go, join the Shanghai, this disease is unable to return, I can’t bear it, I’m also peers. “Zhao Lie is literary and the main servant, intentionally bring Li Sheng to Anqing. The helpless ship has not left Shanghai, and Li Sheng has been killed. Zhao Lie Wen asked the friend Ding Yanshan to handle the post-Li servant, to the joy to pick the coffin, spend two foreign yuan. On October 26, the diary recorded: “Chengdu in the afternoon, lift to the name of the Yizhen. There is a ticket, he will take the ticket,” So, the servant Li Sheng’s life is also explained.

From the “Zhao Lie Wen Diary”, the plague is a disaster on all the people. It is only the probability of death. It is important to be in the case of the fact that it is too far from the fact that it is not as good as the plague. It can be seen that Zhao Lie Wen’s diary is precious, it always records some diseases that are not so well-known characters, make people feel true. The following is the disease of Zhao Lie Wenzhi First Year Diary:

On July 23, Zhou Tenghu died.

On August 23, the old servant Li Yi died.

On the 8th, Yao Wei, Zhao Lie Wenyu. Knowing Dong Liangyu in Hangzhou.

On September 23, Zhang Wei (the word was afraid). The servant Cao Yu died in Chongming.

In the first day of October, I was diagnosed with Mrs. Shen Jun.

On October 23, the old servant Li Sheng was in Shanghai.

On November 18th, Xu Xu, Mrs. Zhouyi, was ill, Xuzhou.

On December 26, Zhao Lie Wen’s wife and Dun Jiaxiang.

The diary in the plague period is the product of the authors and plague. It is a record of the plague in a series of daily lives. Zhao Lie Wen did not deliberately record the plague, but when the plague influenced his family, when the plague happened to the side, he affected his life, he could not sit. Zhao Lie Wen will deal with a series of business records caused by the plague into a diary, and his diary also thus adds a new matter.

Human sorrow may also communicate, but different people are not the same for plagues, and the perception of disease is different. Zhao Lie Wen is sensitive and passionate, so diary touches the plague and deaths often emotionally excited, while others can express quite restraint. The same is a guest of Zeng Guofan, Mo You Zhi in the diary, only a few words for the disease. Try to see that he has contained in the prostitute of Zeng Guofan.

On the second day of February, Ding Ji Chang’s disease.

March 16, 17, Mo You Zhi Chihan, cold. At least last April 18th.


On April 25, Mo Rich Sun (1844-1919) is ill, last until the third day of May.

On the 5th of July, Jin Anqing, Wu Ting Ting.

On July 21, Sui Tibet wasam Malarride.


Zeng Guofan is a lot of diseases, but Mo Youzhi seems to have a lot of books, I would rather spend many pens in the diary, and there are few words to leave the text to the disease, even if he is infected with his son, but A strike. Perhaps, he created a diary has a higher pursuit and writing system. Mo Youzhi’s feelings of this plague is not as strong as Zhao Lie Wen, and there is no more emotions. It may also be due to Mo Youzhi’s relatives to Guizhou. Therefore, he has not been invaded by plague, so he lacks the pain of the skin. And he and his son’s Mo rope grands are sick, and it seems to be more mild and soon can be recovered.

“Mo Youzhi Diary” is very simple


For Zeng Guofan who is sitting in Town, his diary is more complicated. Before the younger brother Zeng Guo’s dye, Zeng Guofan’s pen is like Mo You Zhi, as for the death of Zeng Guo, he is very emotionally, the brushwork is near Zhao Lie Wen Diary. In addition, due to the warranty of the four provinces of Jiangnan Province, Zeng Guofan has a concern about the global plague. It is more macro the ophthalmic view of the plague. Zeng Guofan Diary’s record of the plague, in its entirety, a general and arrival of the on August 12th, “Please let the minister will run military smen”. Playing the cloud:

All military in the southern bank of Dajiang, the prevalence is prevalent. … Ningguo’s most, Jinling, Huizhou, Zhangzhou. Watermakers and Shanghai, Wuhu all over the army, are also full of concession, death. Bao Chao army, according to the second day of the year, in addition to recovered, the disease is 6,670, and the deceased is thousands, and it has not yet been found. Inside and outside the city of Ningguo, the corpse is burn. The patient is unattended. Even within a shed, no one can hit. The famous military in the army will be as Huang Qing, Wu Huazhen, etc. Bao Chao also died in the disease. … Zhang Yunlan sent his brother to Tuen Mun, and it is also difficult to return to camp. Yao Yao, Yao, Yao, is prepared to check once to Ling, and it is not true to death. Si Pinqing, the Ministry of Office, Qi Qi, is now in the country, and it is also sick to save. Yang Yuebin returned from Yangzhou and also hugged.

Tiantian, near the world. The evil consumption, heart is broken.

Good, the court did not criminalize the plague to Zeng Guofan. On September 1st, the film was visualized as the punishment of God and believed that the Taiping army also infected, so he did not sin. The film is folded: “The convictions have a lot of political affairs, enough to do it on the sky. But the heart is silent, to pray to the Great bless, 沴戾 full dismissal. My monarch is hurt, strength, strength, 图 图 禳Save the party, for the people, to move in the heart, the accident is smooth. “After the imperial trend is awarded, the fear of Zeng Guofeng is slightly reduced. Thereafter, it will record the epidemic in the military camp.

However, in this plague, the death of Jiangnan is often until it is. If the pennies of the wrenzi records the pain and death in the plague, the patient and the deceased will undoubtedly a decay with the grass. Ok, Zhao Lie Wen and others have no indifferent. On September 11, Zhao Liewen was in a hired ship to Jiujiang. When the Taohua Town, “the boat has a person who died in the boat.” In the special context, a little sympathy, it is a chasing for history. Reasoning of the concept.

Fourth, who is cared about the individual under the plague?

In the first year of Tongzhi, the history is sliced ​​in this period. This slice does not focus on a grand event, and it does not lock its attention in an important historical figure. How to deal with specific life affairs in front of the plague. Individual life affairs include livelihoods, family affairs, and more. This article does not pay attention to the economic situation, while the disease and death of major focused plagues, especially paying attention to investigating death to individual impact. For individuals, death is extreme results of the plague and the final test ruler of individual life and emotion. Death to individual spiritual level, everyday life order causes a sudden impact. In response to the impact of death, the individual must directly die, handle a series of consequences caused by death, diary describing the people’s livelies under the plague, helping to see the individual’s responsibilities, temperament, etc..

Through the record of the depression of the plague, you can control the degree of concern of the plague. Some authors have generally recorded, and other authors have been invested in quite a multi-ink, and “staring” about plague is formed to a certain extent. Different authors show a difference in the “staring” of plague, and some “stare” the plague of the whole society, some are concerned about the plague of some groups. It can be said that the people of different classes have a certain understanding of this plague. For Zhao Lie Wen, he understands that this is an unprecedented plague, but it is mainly concerned about the dead death caused by the plague. He did not Link with a broader disaster. In the pen of Zhao Lie, death is an unbeatable pain, but it is the pain of individuals and families in the indifferent world.

The disease and death caused by the plague, spawning a lot of disease writing and death, and unexpectedly contributing to a literary prosperity of malformations. The plague has caused many medical records, symptoms, prescriptions, etc. in various episodes, sometimes entering new doctors, and inspires more people’s attention to medical attention. Along with the development of plague, a large number of copies of the writing, the brilliance of the plague records, and the death caused by the plague promotes the development of the tuning and tongue literature. After the end of the plague and the war, the literati also wrote a book, built Zhaozhong, holding all kinds of classic activities, commemorating the deceased, so that they will always live in the text world and become a molecule of eternal memory.

The bottom of the servant is also the opportunity to achieve performance because of this plague, they assume more heavy care and care, and the results often exchange inexplicably pain. Due to the lack of medical conditions, many servants died in this plague. They left the owner’s diary in the mother’s diary in such a misfortune. Their names were recorded, and their deeds were circulated, they wrote the sorrow of the social side with life. Li Yi, Li Sheng and other servants, and the arrival of Wu Sheng and other new servants, indicating that there is still a lot of people’s displacement in this period, and people with high social status can easily find new homes. The plague is equal to everyone, but some people are obviously more tragic in the plague.


Plague also brings a change in family relationship. Some people were forced to undertake the social role in advance, and others lost their loved ones, and they may take the wrong way. Zhao Lie Wen and Zhou Tenghuzhi’s experience reflects this change. The plague of Tongzhi’s first year has proved that in a fragmented society, relatives are still “strong links” in interpersonal relationships, based on factors such as the same year, regional factors may not be as strong as families. For all sentient beings under the first year of Tongzhi, home is still the most attractive and most powerful harbor.

[This article “The National Social Science Fund Major Project” China Modern Diary Case, Solitae and Research “(18ZDA259) is initiated by 湃 新 新闻 ( ]

Editor in charge: Peng Shanshan

Author: Zhang Yan