Seven Buddhas Post Golden Painted Dharma Daly Tower
Taiwan Strait.com January 26th According to the Fujian Daily, after the demise of the Tang Dynasty, Central Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe and other regions even regarded the Liaoning (Khitan) as a representative of China. Now the pronunciation of “China” in Russian The original intention refers to “Khitan”. Generally speaking, “Khitan” means “镔 一般”. “Liao” is named in Liaoshui.
The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is the hometown of the Khitan people. The Khitan urban site is abundant and has a large amount of cultural relics. From January 16th to March 28th, the Fujian Museum and Inner Mongolia Museum jointly launched the “Prairie Dynasty -Liao Dynasty Cultural Relics Boutique Exhibition”, with 120 exhibits, including 54 first -level cultural relics, 14 second -level cultural relics, 32 -level cultural relics 22 It means that two -thirds of exhibits are national treasures.
Unique royal marriage
Liao Dynasty inherited Li Tang, opened Jinyuan, and China Jiaotong and Xixia. Culturally ritual law and law, blending north and south, and connecting the Western Regions. The territory of the strong period, the east to the Japanese Sea, the west to the Altai Mountains, the north to the Erguna River, the waixingling area, and the Baigou River in the central part of Hebei to the south.
Speaking of the Liao Kingdom, it is inevitable that Mother Xiao, the heroine of the queen. With the exhibition this time, there were precious cultural relics unearthed from Princess Chen Guo and Princess Chen Guo and Xiao Shaojia (10 kilometers northeast of Qinglongshan Town, Nunan Banner, Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia).
In order to cooperate with the construction of the Qinglongshan Town Reservoir, in the summer of 1986, the Inner Mongolia Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology and the Cultural Relics and Archeology Institute of Zhelimu (now Tongliao), the Inner Mongolia Cultural Relics Archaeological Institute was cleaned up and discovered for the thousand -year -old burial tomb of the sleeping underground. The epitaphs engraved with green sandstone are square and Zhigai are square. The 4 slopes have 12 as roughly the same line -engraved characters. The epitaph of epitaphs is a shade.
According to the epitaph, it can be speculated that Princess Chen Guo is not only the granddaughter of the Empress Dowager, but also married her 18 -year -old relative Xiao Shaojia. The epitaph of epitaphs: “The Taining Army’s Jiedushi Master Xia Shaojia, the captain of the prosecutor, is also the brother of the queen.” Such a unique royal marriage relationship can understand.
It is said that the Liaoya ancestor Yelu Abao Move because of the pursuit of the Emperor Han Gaozu, and also called the Liu family of Liu. He believes that the room B and the tug of hard work are comparable to Xiao He. noble. Among the Khitan royal family, Yelu can only marry Xiao Xiao to ensure the innocence of family descent and the stability of the dominant status.
The same bed is also the same bed
The burial tomb of Princess Chen Guo and the horse Xiao Shaojia, and the cultural site of Sanxingdui, the Liangzhu cultural site, etc., were listed as the top ten archeological discoveries during the “July Five” period. The burial tomb was built in the six years of Liaoning Thai (1017). Because it was the only unbearable Liao Dynasty royal tomb that was discovered at that time, it was called “Khitan Cultural Miracle”.
3227 cultural relics were unearthed in the tomb. Each one is exquisite and unique, showing the unique Khitan royal aesthetic taste and the level of craftsmanship and tomb customs at that time. The excavation of this tomb filled the gaps in the records of Liao History, opened up a new topic of Liao history research, and provided an important physical basis for verifying the history of the Liao Dynasty.
“From the aid of Sili, the peace of the harmony, the harmony of the piano, the internal assistance, the horse’s first princess died.” Unlike the general burial tomb, the couple still snuggled together after the death of the couple, which was very moving. According to the description of the archeological excavation report, the princess was lying on the left side of the corpse, the horse was on the right side, and the two were wearing the unique funeral clothes of the Khitan royal family from head to toe.
The two head pillow -headed golden flowers and silver pillows, wearing a silver net burial clothes, a face covering a golden mask, and a golden flower and silver boots. The princess’s dress is more graceful and luxurious. Her head is placed with a high -winged gold and silver crown, pearls, amber roots in their ears, pearl necklace on their necks, two pairs of gold bracelets on their wrists, 11 hands with her hands, and 11 with her hands. Gold ring, plus the 6 gold rings of the horse, a total of 17 gold rings were unearthed.
Embedded Gold Gold Gold Packing Silver Paint Box
Animal Jade Pei
Liao Tomb Ten Room Jiukong
From the luxurious unearthed cultural relics of the two people’s burial tombs, we can see the Khitan people’s love for gold. The unearthed golden crown continues the custom of the northern nomadic people’s gold, which is why the “ten rooms and nine emptiness” of the Liao Dynasty tombs were. The princess and Ma Ma tomb was complete and not stolen, so it became more precious.
The large amount of gold and silver in the funeral items is also the characteristic of the Consonal culture. Jinhua and Silver are a kind of golden technology that flourished in the decoration of the utensils in the Tang Dynasty. The Liao Cheng Tang system, the golden flower and silver craftsmanship is widely used in the funerals of the Khitan noble tombs, and there is no use of Jinhua and silver. In addition to Jinhua and silver boots in Princess Chen Guo’s tomb, many living devices have used gold and silver technology.
A large number of amber was unearthed in Princess Chen Guo’s tomb. There were only 2,100 amber products of more than 3,000 funeral products. In the Khitan culture, amber is regarded as a Buddhist blood, and it is one of the characteristics of the Khitan people’s influence by Buddhism. Unfortunately, it was not exhibited this time.
It is still amazing after robbery
The tomb of Yeluyu was selected as “Top Ten New Archaeological Discovery in China in 1992”. Although the tomb is destroyed to a certain extent, such as the painting murals is destroyed, there are still a large number of exquisite cultural relics, mainly gold and silver, copper, iron, ceramics, silk fabrics, car and horses, wood, and wood. As well as jade, agate, glass, crystal, amber ornaments, etc.
These utensils can be called boutique. Princess Chen Guo is a noble noble, but the total weight of the gold instrument unearthed in the tomb reaches more than 1,700 grams, and the silverware reaches more than 10,000 grams. The gold and silver wares of the tomb of Yeluyu’s tomb should be even more expensive.
“The Gaddian Nationality · Lord Surname Primitive” states: “The Khitan minister, there is no surname, but only the names of each place in each place.” The Khitan people also use Yelu as the last name. According to the “New Five Dynasties History of the Khitan”, A Baosai “called the emperor, the emperor was the emperor, and the name of the place where he lived was named.
Yeluyu is not only the cousin of Yelu Abao, but also his important staff member, one of the founding heroes in Liao. Historical records: “Yelu Yuzhi, the name of the milk, the word Yin, the word Yin. When he was a teenager, he was bold and straightforward, and he was very different. . “Later, Yelu Yuzhi became the actual ruler of Dongdan State (also known as Dongliao). Shi Xianxi “.
Sauce glaze -colored cockle pot
Mysterious glazed world
The tomb of Yeluyu also inherits the thick burial wind of the Tang system. In addition to unearthed a large number of golden appliances, the most distinctive thing is that the tomb tomb is extremely luxurious, like an underground palace, which is delicate and exquisite. The square bricks are all colorful and transparent, and the carvings are exquisite. The four corners of the brick have the pattern of butterfly bees.
The entire tomb is elegant and luxurious, and the walls are overflowing. Such a cemetery has no precedent in the Liao Tomb that was found in the past.
Yeluyu’s epitaph, made from gray sandstone, entitled “Great Khitan Kingdom Tokyo Taifu’s cemetery and the cemetery and preface”, which records his life: “As a family, the hands of the Guo Jun, in addition to the auxiliary government, The time for raising the people, pay attention to the Dharma, delay the Confucian books, and refine the six dusts when entering the Xiao Temple, and discuss the five codes when they retreat. “,”
The preciousness of this epitaph is that the record of “the first sect is divided into the head, and the stone locust” has determined the source of the Khitan family, that is, the relationship between the Khitan and Xianbei.
Valted cockle pot
This time, several Liao Dynasty unique instruments -cockle pots, cockle pots are often used as an important basis for the tombs of the Liao Dynasty.
Because Khitan is a nomadic nation, their living utensils are mostly leather and gold and silverware. From the beginning of the nomadic life to settlement life, the ceramic type is mostly imitated with the shape of gold and silverware and leather goods. The cockle pot is fired by imitating the skin container. This type of appliance not only shows the nomadic customs of the Khitan nation, but also reflects the changes in the development process and lifestyle of their ceramic craftsmanship.
Yelu Yuzhi’s tomb was unearthed in a “black” one “white” bioliang cockpot pot. It has a fan on the upper abdomen, full of the lower abdomen, flat bottom, and a few convex wires stacked on the left and right sides to use the stitching marks of imitation leather; one side of the top of the pot is a short -tube -shaped short current, and the other side is attached with a beam. The shape is simple and exquisite. It is the most valued one of the 120 cultural relics.
Stone carving Khitan men’s attorney
High -winged gold and silver crown
Many mysteries to be solved
Following the tomb of Princess Chen Guo and the tomb of Yeluyu, the Tomb Tomb Tomb, Turki Mountain, Inner Mongolia in 2002 is also an important noble tomb. The tomb was not stolen. Paste gold, woodcarvings, copper casting, wooden works, colorful paint and other processes.
The tomb owner is a Khitan noble woman aged 30 to 35. According to the knee, a skewer of copper bells and silver horn found in the tomb speculates that the tomb owner should be a female nobleman related to sacrifice and dance music. Although this is a noble grave, why is there no epitaph and golden mask? Why are there many mercury on your body … left a lot of questions for people.
The Khitan people are ancient nomadic peoples in China. They originated in northeast China and adopted a semi -agricultural and semi -pastoral life. The Liao Dynasty (907-1125) was a dynasty established after the unified ministries of the Khitan leader Yelu Abao Machine. In the Jin Dynasty, Yelu was known as the Mora, and later sync it with the female, and became a component of the Manchu. Although there are no Khitan among the 56 ethnic groups, the Khitan culture is an important part of the diversity of Chinese culture, and has played an important role in forming and developing for the formation and development of China’s unified multi -ethnic nation.
Let us go into the Fujian Museum with the mood of exploration and look for answers from the historical civilization of Khitan.
(Ding Qinghua text/picture, the author is an associate researcher at the Fujian Museum)