: Huang Forty -eight Village: The “Great History” hidden in the depths of Dabie Mountain

Spring Qiuzhai, one of the forty -eight villages.

Village soldiers look at the hole. Photo by Fang Zhengjun

Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, December 4th (Fang Zhengjun, Yu Yanwen) On December 4, “Xinhua Daily Telecom” published a report entitled “Huang Huang Forty -eight Village: Links History of Links in the Cottage”.

The big mountains in Chongshan, the ups and downs of the mountains, the most famous non -East East East Yellow Yellow Forty -eighth Village. The author of Huangchen, who was coming to the crowd of Zhongzhai, traveled through time and space, as if to see the smoke in the beacon border town just dispersed. In front of it, the eyes were full of green mountains, the blue sky, and the wind blowing clouds.

(Small title) Wanting Village 72, Forty -eight Naming Village

In the late seasons of Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties, Dabie Shannan became the area of ​​Fengyun Conference, and the hero howls. As a scholar of Fang Zhi, Wang Yanxin said: “The ground is in danger, and the use of war. The heroes of the chaos in the past have risen.” Volkswagen used the dangerous landscape to win, contributed to contributing, building a village, and waiting for the opportunity to assault. At that time, there were more than 300 large and small villages in Licheng.

These cottage periods during the heyday were liaison with the cottage of Yingshan, Huoshan, Yuexi, Taihu, and Qianshan in Anhui at the time of Henan, Luoshan, Mall, and Gu Shi. , Xingguo (Yangxin), Shouchang (Ezhou) cottage echoed, for a while.

“蕲 别” is the abbreviation of administrative divisions north of Dabie Mountain and the north of the Yangtze River. Before the three years of Emperor Sui Kai (583 years), he was successively unified from Hengshan County and Xiyang County. After that, the county was changed to the state, and the two states were governed.明初改州为府,洪武九年(1376年)至1912年,湖北省黄州府辖蕲州和广济(今武穴)、黄梅、蕲水(今浠水)、罗田、麻城、 Huang An (now Hong’an), Huangpi (Seven Years of Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty), Huanggang (now Huangzhou District, Tuanfeng County, Wuhan Xinzhou District), known as “Huangzhou Eight Supplies”, also known as “蕲 Huang” Essence

The “Yellow Forty -Eight Village” is built in the unusual days, geographical interests, people, and the world. In the late days of the Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties, the national politics decline, the war stacked, the disputes of the heroes, the situation of the situation, the turbulence, and the years of the dynasty. 、, Inverted, raised, ba, 、, 蕲 蕲 滠 滠 and Huayang River), during the cliffs, deep valleys, streams, gully vertical and horizontal, forests and woods, squares Fengfu, village bay dependent on each other, and survival is active.

Ascending to the far away, the foothills of Dabie Mountain are convenient. People and the people are simple and kind, diligent and strong, urgent and good, Shen Yi is courageous. With such a folk customs to modern times, under the inspiration of the Communist Party of China and the Red Army of the Workers and Peasants, the interpretation was “Xiao Xiao Huang An, it was not easy, the gongs rang, 480,000, the male will fight, the female will send meals” Spirit”. This kind of folk customs and geographical conditions are combined to interpret the rich cottage history and culture, and its teachings and incentives surpass time and space.

蕲黄四十八寨:藏在大别山深处的“大历史”

The cottage is the bastion of the people spontaneously armed for armed survival and fighting in the cold weapon era. In the peaceful era, its direct military value disappeared, and there were only a few residues in Zhaocheng, Zhaobao, and Zhaimen. Among them, the cottage with excellent natural landscapes, such as Luotian Tiantang, Bibijia Cottage, Bo Dao Peak, Heyanzhai, Macheng Guifeng Cottage, etc., and other dozens of places have been developed as tourist scenic spots and transformed into economic resources. The rich cottage history and culture, such as legendary stories, poetry, character biography, and compiled and published village, mountains, place names, style, tourism landscape appreciation dictionaries and books. Essence

(Small title) Usually it can be a music country, and in troubled times also guarantees

Wang Yanxin said in “The Chronicle of the Huang Forty Eight Egies”: “The tall or the heavenly Han, the in -depth trail of Shaanxi is only the wrong toe, the cliffs are around, the river is around, the road is deep, and the mountains are shocked. The top of the top or flat around the water spring bamboo and stone. The river enters Jianghuai and has the convenience of sailing; it can usually be a music country.

Forty -eighth village terrain insurance is weird, and the geomorphic form is weird. Paradise Village is located on the west side of the main peak of Dabie Mountain. During the Kangxi reign, “Luo Tian County” stated: “Shan -shaped Olympic Fold, Layer Lanes are resurrected, strange flowers are different, and they are mixed. The danger is abrupt. Looking at Zhongzhou and the south of the river, Lang Ruju’s eyebrows … It can be intercepted by things, and it can be built north and south. “And” there are stones around, about 20 miles wide. “”. On all sides of the mountains, it stands between the Jianghuai and Huai, and it is characteristic. This village has experienced Wu Jiyi and Fu Gao in the late Southern Song Dynasty, Xu Shouhui at the end of the Yuan Dynasty, King of the Early Qing Dynasty, and Ma Chaizhu, the Qianlong, and Qianlong. So far, the ruins such as “Holy Hall”, “Emperor”, and “Walking Racecourse” are left. The poems of the Qing Dynasty Jiang Tingming’s “You Tuan Temple” said:

“The ancient village of Yanyan inserts the clouds, Wu Chu is the first level in the southeast. Overlooking the peaks from the distance is ants, walking down the tall well to know the dragon spots. When we touch, the scenery is like the smoke. Tour and win. “

More than ten miles away from Tiantangzhai, Bijia Cottage is located on the east side of the monk tower temple, with an altitude of 1303 meters, which is also dangerous. The village is steep, like cutting up and down, and the ditch is deep, forming many natural stone caves. “Luo Tian County Chronicle” contains: “Before the wind cave was in the wind, the cave was swollen and shocking.” The three peaks of the village came from, and the middle peak was high, like a pen rack, and because of the famous pens, also known as “Luo Luo Mountain, also known as” Luo Luo Mountain, also known as “Luo Luo Mountain Tian Wenmai’s Land “. The cottage gate is intact, and there is a complete section of the stones of the village. The front lines, three caves, tiger mouth, and Die Shuyan are its acacia. The east of the Zhaizhi has a thousand -level stone steps on the top of the mountain. The well -known Laomen Pass, Tusen Pass, and Moss Guan are closer to this.

The Tiantai Cottage is located at the junction of E -Henan 12 kilometers in Qiling Town, Hong’an. The main peak is 817 meters above sea level. The village is built below the east of the four, only one can be opened. The northeast of the mountain is a cliff, and the southwest is obliquely forest and densely attacked. In the Ming Dynasty, Shangshu Geng Ding said to “The Ji of the Tiantai”: “The mountains are dangerous, if the heavens are limited to the people … there are holes, Gao Guang may be two feet, and the three feet can be listed in front of the cave. Taiwan, such as a few, like a lion, like a tiger, can not be stubborn … Taitung, the two mountains are in the front, their cliffs are like tables, and they are small and falling. There are two mountains behind the mountain, like a table, and the class is described as … “With the maze of the mountain, it is also a good realm of the village.

During the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, the three brothers of Geng Dingxiang, Geng Ding, and Geng Dingli built the Tiantai Academy. They named Xinguan, Wording, Li Yuyan, Binyangbi, Fusongyan, Fusongyan, Yiyunfeng, Wolong Cave, Tanqi Caves, Ice Ponds, and Sky Furnace. The Temple Buddha Temple and Dao Guanxiang are strong. At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, Geng Yingying, a local scholar, agreed here to resist the Qing.

(Small title) Barrone Stone City, Ding Zhuang and guarding

In the Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties, Dabie Mountain is a place where the political situation rotates, and social contradictions and disputes. The tempering of the county people’s long -term war has developed a tradition of Shen Yi’s decision, brave and tenacious ease, and struggling to fight against each other.

The people of the Huang Huang relying on the conditions of the people, they called the people to call the people, and the righteousness of anti -violence and self -protection started at the beginning of the Southern Song Dynasty. In the second year of Xianchun (1266), Luodian Sanwu Township (now Yingshan County) Duan Lizhai was at the head of Yingzhai, and the villagers were convened to block the Mongolian Ashi Army to enter the criminals. Song Duzong Jiazhi. The following year, Duan Chaoli invited Luo Tian Zhihe Township and Sanwu Township to build Yingshan County. Later, it belongs to Liu’anzhou.

In the fourteenth year of Yuan to Yuan (1277), Zhang Dexing and Luo Tian from Luzhou and Luo Tian were dissatisfied with the high -pressure rule of the Mongolians. Liuzhai Volunteer Anti -RMB. Song Duanzong Youxiang Wen Tianxiang sent Cheng Lun and Cheng Huang to Lizhou to help him. Duanzong granted Zhang Dexing to the Huaixi to serve the envoy, and Fu Gao and Liu Yuan were awarded. The people of Huang Xingguo (now Yangxin) and Shouchang (now Ezhou) responded to the people, Lian Kezhou, Huangzhou, Shouchang, and Yang Logu. For months, in the autumn of the year, the Yuan Dynasty Lake Guangxuan comforted the unified soldiers to attack. Zhang Dexing died, and Fu Gao defeated in Tiantianzhai.霍, Huang, Ying, Huo, Liu’an, Taihu Yishi family members were detained.

In the eleventh year of Yuan Zhizheng (1351), Xu Shouhui, Xu Shouhui, Luo Tian Duoyun Township, and Macheng Xixiang (now Hong’an) Zou Psheng and Yuanzhou (now Yichun, Jiangxi) Peng Yingyu used the red scarf as the inverse element in the Paradise Village. In October of the same year, he captured Lishui and Huangzhou Road. Xuan Xuan Shui Qingquan Temple embraced Xu Shouhui as the emperor, Peng Yingyu was the military division, Zou Psheng was the master, and Ni Wenjun was the general. The national name “Tian Wan”, Jian Liantai Province, set up six parts. The next year, the troops captured the provinces of Hubei, Zhejiang, Hunan, Jiang, Anhui, and Jiangxi. Xu Shouhui was murdered by Chen Youliang because of the internal dysentery, and Chen Youliang was defeated to Zhu Yuanzhang.

The late Ming Dynasty was a period of class contradictions, ethnic contradictions, and internal contradictions of the court.都 都 都 蕲 All kinds of forces performed on the stage by chaos, performing a mighty and majestic drama.

In the seventh year of Chongzhen (1634), Gao Yingxiang’s uprising army invaded Huangpi, Huang’an, Macheng, Huangzhou, Lishui, and Guangji. The following year, Luo Ru led the Righteous Army to capture Yingshan and Luo Tian. Then, Zhang Xianzhong led his department to Huang’an and Macheng. Xuan Xuan and the deputy general soldier of the Ming Dynasty fought in the Yin Mountains of Macheng, and the Ming army defeated. The Ming Dynasty retired as an official and Gansu governor Mei Zhi Huan Huan Huan was jealous, Zhang Xian was loyal to kill him, summoned the crowd to protect himself, and to lead him.

In the next ten years, Zhang Xianzhong, “Geli Eye” He Yilong, and “Zuo Jin Wang” He Jin made a yellow yellow. In the sixteenth year of Chongzhen (1643), the leader of Macheng’s “Liren Society” Tang Zhiju’s uprising flag, led tens of thousands of tens of thousands of welcoming Zhang Xianzhong. Zhang Gai Macheng is Changshun Prefecture. He ordered Macheng to lead the state. And occupy Huang Erzhou and Shouchang, Wuchang, and officials in governor, Zhizhou, Governor and other officials. Zhang was called the West King in Huangzhou. At that time, “Yao Ge Old” Yao Minggong fought against the rebels in the Bayhe water village. The gentlemen of various places have imitated them.

Each cottage relies on dangerous obstruction, “Barrier stone built the city, and the edition of the village is established according to the household registration … Ding Zhuang and guarded … The King of Gujing Fanzhan Fanzhang, the old king Zhu Yunzheng is the descent of the king of Chu. King. The pride of the first thing is the reason for the group. “

The cottage built for this purpose was supported by the Ming court and its legacy. In the ten years of Chongzhen (1637), the history of the imperial court was the right of the right capital, governor Anqing, Luzhou, Taihu, Chizhou Sifu, and Guangzhou, Henan, Huguangzhou, Jiangxi Debei and Hukou, and the military affairs. Shi Kefa contacted Zhuzhai to resist the rebels. Song Yizhe also bowed to Qizhou and Luo Tian to fund the cottage artillery and military weapon, and appointed the gentry as the owner of the village. By the south of the Qing army, when the small court of the south of the south, the cottage of Huanghuangzhai was even more hot.

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In the second year of the Shunzhi of the Qing Dynasty (1645), the King of the King chased Li Zicheng to Jiujiang, and took the potential to occupy the Huangzhou, Huanggang, Luzhou, Laishui, Guangji, and Huangmei to defend. The follow -up of the generals Huang An, Macheng and Yingshan belonging to Anhui are included in the territory.

At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the iron blood policy of “staying without leaving a head” was issued to shave hair. “The followers are the people of our country, and the hesitation of hesitant to be against the people.” Hu Jun, a citizen of Guangji County, was found to be shaved and found out, “Li Zhengzheng’s punishment.” The local insurance and neighbors were all whipped; In this way, the anger was aroused, and then he set up a camping camp, trained to be strong, and struggled according to danger.

In December of the three years of Shunzhi (1646), the small dynasty of the Ming Dynasty was established in Zhaoqing, Guangdong.蕲 Huang Cotton has re -vibrated. He Tengyu and other anti -Qing armed forces in Dongting and Poyang Lake counterattacked against each other. Jiangxi Jin Shengyu turned against the Qing Dynasty in Nanchang, and the King of Huang An Jin gathered 100,000 responses. Massachusetts Zhou Chengmo joined forces with Yinghuozhai to fight with the Qing army. Governor of Lake, Gan, Anhui, and Governor of Yu went out at the same time.

In the same year, the official authority of the small court of Hongguang in Nanming, and the officials supported the soldiers. The great warlord Zuo Liangyu named the named Ma Shiying and Ruan Dazhen. The unification of the army hundreds of thousands of themselves from the martial arts river. More than 300 miles of yellow vascular embankments were stepped into pit by iron ride, and the town villages became red. Huang Mei went to the countryside to avoid the Taibai Lake, and the people of Shangxiang settled in the village to survive.起 起 蕲 蕲 蕲 蕲 蕲 蕲 蕲.

The cottage city is sturdy, the food storage is also abundant, and there are more than a thousand soldiers. Each Zhaitongzhong’s letter, phase and response, and more civil and military people are the leaders.

Forty -eight village lineups are very strong, each with thousands of soldiers. Nanming relied on the Qing soldiers to enter the south, helping him to recover the land, especially in the six years of Shunzhi (1649), and made the king of Shicheng Zhu Tongzheng from Yingshan Tsomi Changzhai Changfu Huan to contact the forty -eight villages. Zhaizhong, Zhou Dai, Cao Yichang, martial arts Li Youshi, Chen Yuzaohui Hu Yuliang, Chang Jinlou, Liu Fengyu, Chen Yuan, Xiao Xinyu, etc. to see the king of Shicheng. King Shicheng played Emperor Ming, awarded the king as the Ministry of Bing Shangshu, and the governor Fengyang Bosin, in order to consider Anhui. Tongjin was damaged as the Ministry of War, and Cao Yanchang was the history of the Du Du, and the Both soldiers were supervised in order to consider Hubei. Others are all official positions.

The Qing court mobilized the Hubei, Henan, Anhui, and Gan people to take various breakthrough strategies and entered and entered the cottage of Huanghuang and Yingshan. Many cottages have been flattened successively. Although some cottages have been adhered to for a long time, they were poisoned for their unintentional soldiers and food.

On the day of being besieged, the Luo Tian Gu Yangzhai Soldiers will hang the goats on the village city. Put the grass above the sheep’s head and drum under the feet. When the sheep were hungry, they led their necks to eat grass, and the hind hoofs stepped on the drums, and the sound of a snoring day and night made the enemy hesitant and dare not approach. Later generations named the village.

Luo Tian Qidao River Fuzhuang (originally known as Fuzhai Village) was trapped for a long time, and the food will be absolutely abrupt. The kitchen in Zhaizhong steamed the glutinous rice to feed a fat pig, and then tied the pig out of the city, and deliberately let the enemy get it. The enemy was slaughtered and saw that the belly was glutinous rice. There are many cases.

Zhai soldiers fought against the strong Qing army, agriculture was deserted, and her livelihood was difficult. Wang Weisu’s distress, leading his troops to assault out. In February of the seven years of Shunzhi (1650), he settled the second son to the Yingshan Mountain, and led the old brigade to Lien Mountain and Taihu. The soldiers were defeated to Jiangning (now Nanjing) and died unintelligated.继 Huang Forty -eight Village successively disintegrated, and the struggle was temporarily settled.

(Small title) The fire species has not been extinguished, and the forty -eight village resumes the waves

The fire species of the cottage of the Huang Huangzhai did not extinguish, and immediately reinstated when the wind was blowing. In the ten years of Shunzhi (1653), Huanggang Li Youshi resumed the Huangzhou Prefecture. In the sixteenth year of Shunzhi (1659), the famous officials Zheng Chenggong and Zhang Huangyan attacked the Soviet Union and Anhui in the late Ming Dynasty.云 Huang Han 沔 Zhuzhai Yunxun response. Because of the defeat of Zheng and Zhang, the cottage was unwilling, and it was left out again.

In the thirteenth year of Kangxi (1674), the Huang Cotton resubes. In the previous year, Wu Sangui, Yunnan, anti -Qing Dynasty, and the Henan (also said to be a large -scale) Golden Dragon sneaked into Huangzhou to encourage the cottage response. After the “Three French Chaos”, Golden Dragon and Macheng Liu Qizhen and Liu Qingti joined forces with Henan Tan Yicheng, Zhou Tie Claw, Jiangxi Yang Widow and Huang Guo, Huang’an, Daye, Yingshan, Liu’an, Mall, and Gu Shi. Marshal, holding tens of thousands of people, raised the uprising flag in July. Later from May to May in the Caojiahe, Dongshan, Macheng. The Qing Army went to the suppression, and was defeated several times by the rebels.

The Qing court shocked. The governor of Huguang Zhang Chaozhen urgently transferred Wuchang Zhifu to lead the army in Jackie Chan. In Jackie Chan, Liu Qizhen, who bought the village in the village, made an internal response, and took a micro -service to explore the village, and even controlled the command center. Golden Dragon was forced to escape to Luotian Paper River to continue the struggle. In July, Huanggang Liji slave slave uprising, his leader Fang Gong filial piety led the crowd to Qiyangzhai, and fought fiercely with the Qing Army in the three roads. Golden Dragons meet. In August, Golden Dragons and others fell into the Qing Army Circle during the transfer, all killed.

蕲黄四十八寨:藏在大别山深处的“大历史”

In the seventeenth year of Qianlong (1752), during the heyday of the Qing Dynasty, the flag seat of the Forty -Eight Village in the Huanghuang Village -Luo Tian Tiantuzhai, a farmer led by Ma Chaizhu.

Ma Chaozhu is a native of Zhangjiayu (also said that Huoshan Wujia shop), and the family rented a forest land in Paradise Village in the Hejiang family of the Heijiang family of Luotian. He covered the wasteland as a cover and brewed uprising. The monk of Paradise Baiyunzhang was in the right way. The fake Tema Chaozhu was “the god of destiny” and “the 20 -year -old is the heavenly sword”. There are also university scholars Zhang Xiyu and general Wu Chengyun’s uniform soldiers. Chaozhu was renamed Tai Chao. Zhengxiu also wrote the text of the Qing Dynasty and the text of “Grain Stocking” and “Jing Shen”, and drafted the uprising slogan of “Guanshou Mountains and Rivers, Pu’an Society, that is, to be destined, Fulu Yongchang”.

In the first month of Qianlong (1752), Ma Chaizhu assigned blacksmith Wang Tingxi and Xu Wen to rush to create military abilities. In March 14th, Li Bi, Zhizhou, Zhizhou, to Zhang Jiayi Wang Tingxi’s family to find knives, white cloth and other things. The uprising plan is exposed.

Ma Chaozhu rushed to engrave the “Taizhao Army Order” to distribute all places, and scheduled to be an uprising in the third day of April.

The Qing court ordered the Governor of Hu Guang to rush to Luo Tian across Ma Dun. The governor of the two rivers Yin Jishan stationed in Yingshan Jinjiapu and blocked the rebels to retreat. At the attack on both sides, more than a hundred people including Ma Chaizhu’s mother, wife, and monk were arrested with Hu Jixiu, Luo Tianzhi County, and died on the spot. Ma Chaozhu was fortunate to escape. Uprising end.

The Forty -eight Village, which lasted more than a hundred years, was silent.

(Small title) The cottage, the end of the creation of the people to survive

Wang Yanxin said in “The Chronicle of the Forty Eight Egies of the Yellow Huang”: “Anhui and Hubei are the voices of the village owner … all of the old lords, the old gentlemen of the solution group, the people of Muyi are attached. The people who belong to the new administration (the Qing court) are because of the time of the time, and there are also people who are from migration. “In the” Law “,” The cottage, the end of the creation of the people to survive. Survival is vigilant, and the spirit is collected by the police, and the laws are born because of the assembly. Therefore, there is a rule of groups and an independent system. “

The cottage regulations are mainly:

The adjacent village is based on Dazhai, and the village is mentioned to interoperate the voice. When encountering the enemy, the gongs are used as the name, and they should respond to it, or they will fight against each other, or they keep their heads. The “war -defense contracts” established by the large and small village must follow.

The public in Qunzhai has its own morals. All the rescue of the wounded must do its best, the equipment and food supply must be connected or not, the men and women in the Zhaizhai are living together for the couple. The village soldiers have a disease.

Either holding a village, or a public capital jointly, the living materials are negotiated by the township township and the villagers, and the villagers do their best to make up for it. In order to protect the enemy’s death, the relatives also have to take care of the wealthy family.

Zhaocheng built money to pay for money and contributes. Zhai soldiers voluntarily joined, and their weapons came with their own. Zhaizhong’s work is divided into work, each of which is based on the division of work, and does its own efforts. The battle out of the village is mainly based on the young men, and the village mobilizes if necessary.

The public rules and order of Zhaizhai are supervisors of the teachers of the village. Anyone who enters the village shared the bamboo one by one, named “fire card”. The shapes and patterns of the “fire cards” of each village are different, and they are uniform in the general villages to prevent traitors from mixing.

The “Huanghuang Forty -Eight Village” is famous for its name. Because of the above -mentioned princes, elders, gentlemen, and righteousness, the retired officials participated in the regulations of the village and the support of the villagers can perform unique historical dramas.

bibliography:

Wang Yanxin’s “Huang Forty Eight Eight Village Chronicle” China Book Bureau, 1966

Song Yan’s “Yuan Shi” Chinese Book Company, 1976

Zhang Tingyu’s “History of the Ming Dynasty” Chinese Book Company, 1974

Zhang Huangyan “North Expedition Ji Lue” Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1984

“Huanggang City Zhi” Chong Document Bureau, 2004